Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, Netherlands
Allylisothiocyanate (AITC) has a low stability after being released from mustard seeds into headspace. Existing moisture presence in the packaging system induced the AITC degradation. However, the AITC degradation might have a lower rate at low temperature. The partitioning between a headspace and a food will depend on the food composition Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect food matrices with different composition on the amount of AITC in the packaging headspace at two different temperatures.
The mustard seeds were freeze dried, defatted, and milled prior to water addition to initiate the formation of AITC. The AITC was released from mustard ground seeds in the packaging system containing different matrices; fat (0, 2.5, 5%) and protein (0, 2.5, 5%). Those samples were stored at different temperatures (4 0C and 20 0C). The AITC concentration in the headspace was measured by gas chromatography (GC) for 5 days.
Higher released AITC was maintained for a longer time at low temperature (4-5 oC) than that at high temperatures (20 °C). The protein had no effect on AITC partitioning at the higher temperature, but at low temperature higher protein content decreased the headspace concentration of AITC although no effect of different protein content was observed after the peak. A higher level of fat in the food matrices increased AITC partitioning into food matrices, which reduced the amount of AITC in the headspace. These results show that protein in food matrices has a small influence on headspace AITC, while the fat phase strongly affects the AITC in the headspace.
AITC release derived from mustard ground seeds is suitable to apply in the food with low-fat content. However, further research is required to investigate the interaction and antimicrobial effect of partitioned AITC in food matrices.